NB: De meest actuele versie van deze site kunt u vinden op: www.musculoskeletalmedicine.nl. Omdat deze oudere site nog steeds veel wordt bezocht is het nog niet van het internet afgehaald.

Op deze pagina vindt u een overzicht van literatuur met betrekking tot diverse aspecten van de McKenzie therapie. De lijst is niet opgesteld met de intentie allesomvattend te zijn, maar is veel meer bedoeld als een hulp bij het zoeken naar literatuur.

Boeken     naar boven

De McKenzie methode is beschreven in de volgende boeken.

McKenzie RA. The lumbar spine. Spinal Publications 1981. ISBN 0 473 00064 4.

McKenzie RA. The cervical and thoracic spine. Spinal Publications 1990. ISBN 0 9597746 7 X.

De methode     naar boven

Een lijst van artikelen met onafhankelijk onderzoek over de effectiviteit van de McKenzie methode.

Adams MA Dolan P: recent advances in lumbar spinal mechanics and their clinical significance. Clin Biomechanics, 1995, 10;1:3-19

Alexander AH, Jones AM, Rosenbaum DH: "Nonoperative management of herniated nucleus pulposus: patient selection by the extension sign, a long-term follow-up." Ortho Rev 21(2):181-188, 1992.

Belanger AY, Depres MC, Goulet H, Trottier F; "The McKenzie approach: How many clinical trials support its effectiveness?" Proceedings of the World Confederation for Physicial Therapy 11th International Congress, London, UK, July 1991.

Delitto A, Cibulka MT, Erhard RE, et al. Evidence for an extension-mobilisation category in acute low back syndrome: A presceptive validation pilot study. Phys Ther,1993;73:216-28.

Dimaggio A, Mooney V: "Conservative care for low back pain: What works?" J Musculoskel Med Sept 1987:27-34.

Dimaggio A, Mooney V: "The McKenzie program: Exercise effective against back pain." J Musculoskel Med Dec. 1987:63-74.

Donahue MS, Riddle DL:Intertester reliability of a modified version of McKenzie’s lateral shift assessments obtained on patients with low back pain.

Donelson R, Silva G, Murphy K: "The Centralization Phenomenon: Its usefulness in evaluating and treating referred pain." Spine 15 (2): 211-213, 1990.

Donelson R: "The McKenzie approach to evaluating and treating low back pain." Ortho Rev Vol 19(8):681-686, 1990.

Donelson RG, McKenzie RA: "Mechanical assessment and treatment of spinal pain." The Adult Spine: Principles and Practice. Chpt. 36B:1627-1639, 1991. Frymoyer (ed) Raven Press, New York.

Donelson RG: "Identifying appropriate exercises for your low back pain patient." J Musculoskel Med pp.14-29, Dec 1991.

Donelson R, Grant W, et al. Pain response to sagittal end-range spinal motion. A multi-centered prospective trial. Spine, 1991;6S:206-212.

Donelson R, Aprill C, Medcalf R, Grant W. A prospective study of centralisation of lumbar and referred pain: A predictor of symptomatic discs and anular competence. Spine, 1997;10:1115-23.

Donelson R, Medcalf R, Grant W. Cervical flexion, extension, protrusion and retraction: Clinical analysis of symptom response to end-range test movements. Proceedings Symposium 26/4/97, Amersfoort, The Netherlands

Elnagger IM, Nordin M, Sheikhzadeh A, Parnianpour M, Kahanovitz N: "Effects of spinal flexion and extension exercises on low back pain and spinal mobility in chronic mechanical low-back pain patients." Spine 16(8):967-972, 1991.

Erhard RE, Delitto A, Cibulka MT. Relative effectiveness of an extension program and a combined program of manipulation and flexion and extension exercises in patients with acute low back syndrome. Phys. Ther, 1994;74:1093-100.

Faas A: Exercises: Which ones are worth trying for which patients, and when? Spine, 1996;24:2874-79

Fredrickson BE, et al: McKenzie treatment of low back pain: "A correlation of significant factors in determining prognosis." Annual meeting of International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine,Dallas, Texas, USA, 1986.

Gore et al: "Neck pain: a long term followup of 205 patients." Spine 12(1):1-5, 1987.

Koes BW, Bouter LM, Beckerman H van der Heijden GJMG, Knipschild PG: "Spinal manipulation and mobilisation for back and neck pain: a blinded review." BMJ 303:1298-1303, 1991.

Koes BW, Assendelft WJJ, et al: Spinal manipulation for low back pain. An updated systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Spine, 1996;24:2860-73

Knipschild PG: "Physiotherapy exercises and back pain: a blinded review." BMJ 302:1572-1576, 1991.

Kopp JR, Alexander AH, Turocy RH, et al: "The Use of Lumbar Extension in the Evaluation and Treatment of Patients With Acute herniated Nucleus Pulposus." Clin Orthop 202:211-218, 1986.

Laslett M: "Use of manipulative therapy for mechanical pain of spinal origin." Ortho Rev 16(8):65-73, 1987.

Long A. The centralisation phenomenon: its usefulness as a predictor of outcome in conservative treatment of chronic low back pain. A pilot study. Spine, 1995;23:2513-21.

McKenzie RA: "A Perspective on Manipulative Therapy." Physiotherapy 75 (8):440-444, 1989.

McKenzie RA: "Prophylaxsis in Recurrent Low Back Pain." NZ Med J 89 (627): 22-23, 1979.

McKenzie RA: "Manual Correction of Sciatic Scoliosis." NZ Med J 76 (484): 194-199, 1972.

McKenzie RA: "Mechanical diagnosis and therapy for disorders of the low back." Physical Therapy of the Low Back, eds 2nd ed. Twomey LT, Taylor JR Churchill Livingstone, London, New York, 1994.

McKinney LA, et al: "The role of physiotherapy in the management of acute neck sprains following road-traffic accidents." Archives Emerg Med 6:27-33, 1989.

McKinney LA: "Early mobilization and outcome in acute sprains of the neck." BMJ 299:106, 1989.

Meade TW, et al: "Low back pain of mechanical origin: randomised comparison of chiropractic and hospital outpatient treatment." BMJ 300:1431-1437, 1990.

Mealy K, et al: "Early mobilization of acute whiplash injuries." BMJ 292:656, 1986.

Nwuga G, Nwuga V: "Relative Therapeutic Efficacy of the Williams and McKenzie Protocols in Back Pain Management." Physiother Prac 1:99-105, 1985.

Ottenbacher K, Difabio RP: "Efficacy of spinal manipulation/mobilisation therapy: A meta-analysis."Spine 10(9):833-837, 1985.

Ponte DJ, Jensen GL, Kent BE: "A Preliminary Report on the Use of the McKenzie Protocol verses the Williams Protocol in the Treatment of Low Back Pain." J Ortho Sports PT 6 (2): 130-139,1984.

Rath WW, Rath JND, Duffy CG, et al: "A Comparison of Pain Location and Duration with Treatment Outcome and Frequency." Presented at First International McKenzie Conference, Newport Beach, CA, July 1989.

Riddle DL, Lamb RL: Intertester reliability of judgements of the presence of trigger points in patients with low back pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 73(10):893-898

Riddel DL, Rothstein JM:Intertester reliability of McKenzie’s Classifications of the Syndrome types present in patients with low back pain. Spine, 18;10:1333-44, 1993

Roberts AP: "Nottingham Acute Low Back Pain Study. Preliminary Report." Presented at the First International McKenzie Conference, Newport Beach, CA, July 1989.

Salter RB, et al: "The biological effect of continuous passive motion on the healing full thickness defects in cartilage." JBJS 62-A(8):1232-1251, 1980.

Salter R: "Motion, not immobility, advocated for healing synovial joints." Jour AMA 246(18):2005-2006, 1979.

Schwartzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R. et al. The relative contribution of the disc and zygapophyseal joint in chronic low back pain. Spine, 1994;7: 801-806.

Schwartzer AC, Aprill CN, Derby R. Clinical features of patients with pain stemming from the lumbar zygapophyseal joints. Is the lumar facet syndrom a clinical entity?. Spine, 1994;10:1132-37.

Spratt KF, Lehmann TR, Weinstein JN, Sayre HA. A new approach to the low back physical examination, behavioral assessment of mechanical signs. Spine, 1990;2: 96-102.

Stankovich R, Johnell O: "Conservative Treatment of Acute Low-Back Pain: A Prospective Randomized Trial: McKenzie Method of Treatment versus Patient Education in 'Mini Back School.'" Spine 15 (2): 120-123, 1990.

Stankovich R, Johnell O: "Conservative treatment of acute low back pain: a 5-year followup study of two methods of treatment." Spine 20(4):469-472, 1995.

Twomey LT, Taylor J. Age changes in lumbar intervertebral discs. Acta Orthop. Scan., 1985;6:496-99.

Van Wijmen: "The management of recurrent low back pain." Modern manual therapy of the vertebral column. Ed. Grieve GP Ch 73:756-776, 1986.

findings." Conference Proceedings, The Society for Back Pain Research (The Royal Society of Medicine), London, England, October 1992.

Vanharanta H, Videman T, Mooney V: "A Comparison of McKenzie Exercises, Back School and Cotrell 90-90 Traction in the Treatment of Low Back Pain." Presented at the International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine, Dallas, 1986.

Vernon Roberts B. Pathology of degenerative spondylosis. In: Jayson MIV (ed) Th lumbar spine and back pain. Pitman Medical, Tunbridge Well, UK.

Weber H: "Lumbar disc herniation: a controlled, prospective study with ten years of observation."

Williams M, et al: "A comparison of the effects of two sitting postures on back and referred pain Spine 16(10):1185-1191, 1991.

Williams MM, Grant RN: "Effects of the McKenzie spinal therapy and rehabilitation programme. Preliminary

Intradiscale drukmetingen bij zitten     naar boven

Andersson GBJ, et al: "The sitting posture: An electromyographic and discometric study." Orth Clin North Am. 6 (1): 105-120, 1975.

Andersson GBJ, Murphy RW, et al: The influence of back rest inclination and lumbar support on lumbar lordosis. Spine, 1979,4;1:52-58.

Bendix T, Biering-Sorenson F: "Posture of the trunk when sitting on forward inclining seats." Scand J Rehab Med 15:197-203, 1983.

Black KM, McClure P, Polansky M:The influence of different sitting positions on cervical and lumbar posture. Spine, 1996,21;1:65-70

Harms Ringdahl K:On assessment of schoulder exercise and load-elicted pain in the cervical spine. Scand J Rehab Med Suppl 14, 1986

Hedman T P,. Fernie G R: Mechanical Response of the Lumbar Spine to Seated Postural Loads. Spine 1997;22;7:734-743

Lord MJ, Small JM Dinsay JM: Lumbar lordosis. Effects of sitting and standing, Spine, 1997,22;21:2571-74

Mandal AC: "The correct height of school furniture." Physiotherapy 70(2):48-53, 1984.

Nachemson A: "The load on lumbar discs in different positions of the body." Clin Orthop 35: 107-122, 1966.

Williams MM, Hawley JA, McKenzie RA, et al. A comparison of the effects of two sitting postures on back and referred pain. Spine, 1991;1185-1191.

Pijnpatronen     naar boven

Cavanaugh JM, KalakuriS, Özaktay AC: Innervation of the rabbit lumbar intervertebral disc and posterior longitudinal ligament. Spine, 1995;19:2080-85.

Pople IK, Griffith HB: Prediction of an extruded fragment in lumbar disc patients from clinical presentations. Spine 1994;2:156-58.

De discus     naar boven

Adams MA, Hutton WC, Stott JRR: "Resistance of the Lumbar Spine in Flexion." Spine 5(3): 245-253, 1980.

Adams MA, Hutton WC: "Relevance of torsion in the mechanical derangement of the lumbar spine." Spine 6(3):241-248, 1981.

Adams MA, Hutton WC: PID: "A hyperflexion injury." Spine 7(3):135-142, 1982.

Adams MA, Hutton WC: "The mechanical function of the lumbar apophyseal joints." Spine 8(3):327, 1983.

Adams MA, Hutton WC: "The effect of posture on the fluid content of lumbar intervertebral discs." Spine 8(6):665-671, 1983.

Adams MA, Hutton WC: "Gradual Disc Prolapse." Spine 16 (6):531-534, 1985.

Adams MA, Dolan P, Hutton WC: "Stages of Disc Degeneration as Revealed by Discograms." JBJS 68B(1):36-41, 1986.

Adams MA, Dolan P, Hutton WC: "Lumbar Spine in Backward Bending." Spine 13(9):1019-1026, 1988.

Adams MA, Dolan P, Hutton WC: "Diurnal Stresses on the Lumbar Spine." Spine 12 (2):130-137, 1989.

Adams MA Dolan P:Recent advances in lumbar spinal mechanics and their clinical significance. Clin Biomechanics, 1995, 10;1:3-19

Alexander AH, et al. Non operative management of herniated nucleus pulposus: Patient selection by the extension sign. Proceedings NASS, Monterey, California, 1990.

Cavanaugh JM, KalakuriS, Özaktay AC. Innervation of the rabbit lumbar intervertebral disc and posterior longitudinal ligament. Spine, 1995;19:2080-85.

Donelson R, Aprill C, Medcalf R, Grant W. A prospective study of centralisation of lumbar and referred pain: A predictor of symptomatic discs and anular competence. Spine, 1997;10:1115-23.

Donelson R, Medcalf R, Grant W. Cervical flexion, extension, protrusion and retraction: Clinical analysis of symptom response to end-range test movements. Proceedings Symposium 26/4/97, Amersfoort, The Netherlands

Krismer M, Haid C, Rabi W. The contribution of anulus fibers to torque resistance. Spine 1996,21;22:2551-57

Lu YM, Hutton WC, et al. Do bending, twisting, and diurnal fluid changes in the disc affect the propensity to prolaps? A visoelastic finite element model. Spine, 1996;22:2570-79.

Mulholland RC: Lumbar segmental instability: clinical definition. Procedings: Lumbar Segmental Instability, IVth Brussels International Spine Symposium, 1997.

Mooney V. Where is the pain coming from? Spine, 187;18: 754-759.

Moore RJ, Vernon Roberts B et al. The origine and fate of herniated lumbar intervertebral disc tissue. Spine,1996;18:2149-55.

Ohshima H, Hirano N, Osada R et al. Morphologic variations of the lumbar posterior longitudinal ligament and the the modality of disc herniations. Spine, 1993;16:2408-11.

Spitzer WO, Leblanc FE, Dupuis M, et al. Scientific approach to the assessment and management of activity-related spinal disorders: A mongraph for clincians. Report of the Quebec Task Force on Spinal Disorders. Spine, 1987;12(suppl):1-59.

Bewegingen van de nucleus     naar boven

Fennell AJ, Jones PJ Hukins DWL. Migration of the nucleus pulposus within the intervertebral disc during flexion and extension of the spine. Spine, 21;23:2753-57

Fennell AJ. Movement of the nucleus pulposus within the intervertebral disc during flexion/extension of the back. Manchester University, 1995, Thesis Master of science.

McNally DS, Adams MA:Internal intervertebral disc mechanics as revealed by stress profilometry. Spine, 1992,17;1:66-73

Sheppard JAN, Rand C. Internal disc dynamics. St Leonards-on-Sea; Conquest Hospital, 1992. (privately circulated video recording)

Pijntekeningen     naar boven

Vanharanta H, Guyer RD: The association between pain drawings and computed tomographic/discographic pain responses. Spine, 20(6):729-733

Recidieven     naar boven

Berquist-Ullman M, Larsson U.: Acute low back pain in industry: A controlled prospective study with special reference to therapy and confounding factors. Acta Orthop Scand 1970;170(suppl):1-117

Troup JD, Martin JW, Lloyd DC. Back painin industry: A prospective survey . Spine 1981;6:61-9.

Prognose     naar boven

Donelson R, Aprill C, Medcalf R, Grant W. A.: prospective study of centralisation of lumbar and referred pain: A predictor of symptomatic discs and anular competence. Spine, 1997;10:1115-23.

Hoogen van den HJM, Koes BW, et al:The prognosis of low back pain in general practice.. Spine, 1997, 22;13:1515-21.

Diagnostische onbetrouwbaarheid     naar boven

Tulder van MW, Koes BW, Bouter LM, Metsemakers JFM. Management of chronic nonspecific low back pain in primary care: A descriptive study. Spine 1997;1: 76-82

Relatie pijn en röntgenafwijkingen     naar boven

Tulder van MW, Assendelft van WJJ, Koes BW, Bouter LM.: Spinal radiographic findings and nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review of observational studies. Spine, 1997;4:427-34

Pijnmechanismen     naar boven

Bogduk N, et al: "The cervical zygapophyseal joints as a source of neck pain." Spine 13(6):610-617, 1988.

Bogduk N, et al: "The innervation of the cervical inter-vertebral discs." Spine 13(1):2-8, 1988.

Bogduk N: "Innervation, pain patterns and mechanisms of pain production.: In: Physical Therapy of the Low Back. Twomey LT, Taylor JR (eds) New York, Churchill Livingstone, 1994.

Bogduk N, Tynan W, Wilson AS: "The nerve supply to the human lumbar intervertebral disc." J Anat 132(1):39, 1981.

Bogduk N: "The innervation of the lumbar spine." Spine 8(3):286, 1983.

Breig A: Adversive Mechanical Tension in the CNS. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1978.

Cloward R: "Discography:technique, indications and evaluation of normal and abnormal intervertebral discs." Am J Roent 68:552, 1952.

Cloward R: "Cervical discography." Annals Surg 150(6):1052, 1959.

Evans P: "The healing process at the cellular level." Physiotherapy 66(8):256-259, 1980.

Hampton D, Laros G, McCarron R, et al: "Healing potential of the anulus fibrosus." Spine 14 (4): 398-401, 1989.

Hardy MA: "The biology of scar formation." Phys Ther 69:1014-1024, 1989.

Kuslich S, Ulstrom C: "The tissue origin of low back pain and sciatica." Orth Cl N Am 22(2): 181-187, 1991.

Vanharanta H, Sachs BL, Spivey RD, et al: "The relationship of pain provocation to lumbar disc deterioration as seen by CT/Discography." Spine 12 (3):295-298, 1987.

Centralisatiefenomeen     naar boven

Alexander AH, et al. Non operative management of herniated nucleus pulposus: Patient selection by the extension sign. Proceedings NASS, Monterey, California, 1990.
Indien extensie klachten reductie geeft en centralisatie, dan is dit een goed teken om zonder chirurgisch ingrijpen verder te gaan.

Donelson R, Murphy K, Silva G. The Centralisation Phenomenon. Its usefulness in evaluating and treating referred pain. Spine, 1990;3:211-13.
Het vóórkomen van het centralisatie fenomeen is een zeer goede voorspeller van een goed reultaat bij therapie en geeft op betrouwbare wijze de juiste bewegingsrichting aan. Indien geen centralisatie optreedt, dan is dit een slecht teken voor succesvolle therapie en een waardevol instrument om vroegtijdig tot operatief ingrijpen te besluiten.

Donelson R, Grant W, et al. Pain response to sagittal end-range spinal motion. A multi-centered prospective trial. Spine, 1991;6S:206-212.
End range extensie vermindert significant de centrale en distale pijn, waarbij het centralisatie fenomeen optreedt. Flexie veregert juist de klachten en de uitstraling. 40% van de onderzochten had een voorkeur voor extensie en 7% voor flexie.

Donelson RG, Grant WD, Kamps C et al: Low back pain and referred pain respose to mechanical lumbar movements in the frontal plane, ISSLS, 1991.

Donelson R, Aprill C, Medcalf R, Grant W. A prospective study of centralisation of lumbar and referred pain: A predictor of symptomatic discs and anular competence. Spine, 1997;10:1115-23.
Het McKenzie assessment differentieert op betrouwbare wijze tussen discogene en niet-discogene pijn. Tevens kan betrouwbaar worden vastgesteld bij symptomatische disci of de discus intact is of niet. Het assessment is beter dan de MRI om pijnlijke disci van niet-pijnlijke disci te onderscheiden.

Karas R, McIntosh G, Hall H, et al: The relationship between nonorganic signs and centralisation of symptoms in the prediction of return to work for patients with low back pain. Physiotherapy, 1997,77;4:354-360.
Het onvermogen om te centraliseren is een slechte prognose voor werkhervatting. Een hoge Waddell score voorspelt een slechte kans tot werkhervatting, ongeacht of de patiënten een centralisatie hadden. Een hoge Waddell score blijkt de beste voorspeller te zijn als het gaat om werkhervatting.

Kopp JR, Alexander H, et al. The use of lumbar extension in the evaluation and treatment of patients with acute herniated nucleus pulposus. A preliminary report. Clin. Orthop. 1986;202:211-217.
Een volledig vrije extensie voorspelt een goede uitkomst voor conservatieve (oefen-)therapie. Gezien het goede resultaat van deze test, stelt de auteur voor om extensie oefeningen als therapie te gaan gebruiken.

Long A. The centralisation phenomenon: its usefulness as a predictor of outcome in conservative treatment of chronic low back pain. A pilot study. Spine, 1995;23:2513-21.
Centralisatie helpt bij het identificeren van subgroepen in een populatie met chronisch LBP en zou een goed kader zijn waarbinnen chronisch ruglijden georganiseerd zou kunnen worden. Auteur geeft hier voor het eerst aan dat het centralisatie fenomeen ook van toepassing is bij mensen met chronische rugpijn.

Sufka A, Hauger B et al: Centralization of low back pain and perceived functional outcome. JOSPT, 1998,27;3:205-212.
Lage rugpijn patiënten tonen een sneller herstel van functie indien er complete centralisatie optrad binnen 14 dagen. Maar eerder optreden van centralistie lijdt niet tot sneller hersel. Complete centralisatie kan gecorreleerd worden aan een verbetering van functie hersel en dus van de kwaliteit van het leven! (De officiële definitie van het centralisatie fenomeen (zie artikel in dit blad van David Poulter) gaat uit van een SNELLE verandering van de klachten. 14 dagen is dan te lang om van een echt gedefinieërd fenomeen te spreken. Misschien heeft de auteur iets anders gemeten dan wij denken.

Williams MM, Hawley JA, McKenzie RA, et al. A comparison of the effects of two sitting postures on back and referred pain. Spine, 1991;1185-1191.
De bekende zit studie van mensen van het McKenzie Instituut. Er blijkt uit dat zitten met een lumbale rol alleen al voldoende is om een centralisatie te verkrijgen. Zonder rol straalden de klachten uit. Zitten kan op deze manier een zinvol instrument zijn om patiënten bewust te maken van de invloed die houding kan hebben op de klachten.

naar boven